Friendly Russian: Learning How to Read & Write in Russian

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Chapter 1: Lesson 8

Review - Повторе́ние

I. Check your knowledge of some words, phrases and constructions crucial for basic communication needs:

1. Greeting people in Russian: How would you greet your professor and how would you greet your close friend? Which time-related greetings do you know?
2. How would you say thanks, words of pardon and good bye?
3. Do you know how to introduce yourself and ask a person’s name?
4. Can you ask about the whereabouts of things and people? (Where is….?)
5. How will you ask what a word meaning is in English or Russian? (What’s the English word for..?  What’s the Russian word for…?)
6. How will you ask a person to repeat what s/he said?
7. Can you say what your telephone number is in Russian?
8. Describe your family do you have a brother, a sister? a grandmother, a grandfother? an aunt, an uncle? …
9. Check if you can ask another person (your new acquaintance for example) if s/he has a brother, a sister, a friend, a car, a computer, an umbrella, etc. First go formal, then informal with your questions.

II. Check if you can easily read and translate the text below:

In the classroom


Профе́ссор: Откро́йте, пожа́луйста, ру́сский уче́бник. Страни́ца но́мер де́сять, упражне́ние но́мер шесть. Тим Кларк, чита́йте, пожа́луйста.
Tim Clark reads: Вот ка́рта. Это го́род Москва́. Здесь – стадио́н, здесь – гости́ница, а здесь – Кра́сная Пло́щадь.
Профе́ссор: Хорошо́. Повтори́те, пожа́луйста, сло́во “гости́ница.”
Тим Кларк: Гости́ница.
Профе́ссор: Отли́чно. Переведи́те, пожа́луйста, сло́во " пло́щадь."
Тим Кларк: Square.
Профе́ссор: А что тако́е “Кра́сная Пло́щадь”?
Тим Кларк: Red Square.
 Профе́ссор: Пра́вильно. А как по-ру́сски "street"?
Тим Кларк: У́лица.
Профе́ссор: Молоде́ц! Отли́чно.


III. Check your knowledge of some grammatical features:

1. Explain the difference between the two sentences: Сестра́ до́маДо́ма сестра́”.

2. Name all personal pronouns in Russian. What’s the difference between “ТЫ” and “ВЫ”?

3. Make statements and correct them like in the following example: Э́то шко́ла.” – “Нет, э́то не шко́ла, а музе́й.”  Work with the couples of words given below. Translate all.
фотогра́фия – карти́на; вход – вы́ход; ры́ба – ку́рица; тетра́дь - журна́л

4. Translate into Russian the following sentences featuring frequently-used conjunctions:

1) I have a cat and a dog. 2) Is it dinner or supper? 3) Both mother and father are at home. 4) Is the hospital close or far? 5) This is neither cafeteria nor a canteen, it’s a restaurant. 6) This is not sugar, but salt. 7) My name is Nina. – And mine is Lena.

5. Grammatical  Gender is a most important attribute of Russian grammar. Make sure you feel proficient in dealing with it. Here is an overview of things you learned in from previous lessons:

Russian nouns have three possible genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Unlike English, even inanimate objects can be refereed to as "OH" (he) or "OHÁ" (she), and still others as "OHÓ" (it).  So Russian personal pronouns are not always ‘personal’!
It is crucial to know the gender of a noun, not only to make the right choice of a pronoun to substitute for it (for example: "Где сумка? - Она́ тут", "Где каранда́ш? - Он тут", "Где окно́? - Оно́ там"), but also because the words that correlate with the noun - adjectives, possessives, and even verbs in the past tense – must agree with the noun in gender. The easy part about Russian gender, though, is that in most cases you can easily identify it by the last letter:

го́род  дом музе́й  masculine end in a consonant
city      house  museum
кни́га ку́хня ру́чка   feminine      end in  A or Я*
book          kitchen  pen   
письмо́ мо́ре бельё neuter         end in O, E, or Ë


sea      linen 

The nouns that defy such direct "diagnostics" are those that end in the soft sign - "Ь".
They can be either masculine: слова́рь (m) - dictionary, or feminine: дверь (f)-door, and you usually need to consult a dictionary to find out. However, if the soft sign comes after Ж, Ч, Ш the nouns are always feminine, remember?

* The exceptions to this are very few and easy. For example, “па́па” (daddy), “де́душка” (grandpa), “мужчи́на” (man), and дя́дя (uncle) end in “A”  or “Я” even though they are self-evidently  masculine gender. All words correlating with them (possessive pronouns, adjectives, etc.) accept masculine gender too. However, when it comes to cases, all of these nouns are declined as if  they are feminine.
Reminder: another exception are words и́мя (name) and вре́мя (time) which are neuter. Do not worry about gender in plural: the pronoun ОНИ is used for all of them.

5.1. Place the following words according to their gender by writing them on the line with their proper pronoun. Translate.

кни́га ключ дочь у́лица вино́ звоно́к ночь пла́тье дверь окно́ трамва́й врач язы́к жена́ муж пло́щадь гость гости́ница яйцо́ дождь мы́ло о́чередь

ОН    ________________________________________________________________
ОНА́  ________________________________________________________________
ОНО́  ________________________________________________________________

5.2. Answer the questions, filling the blank with the correct pronoun. Translate.               

1. - Где ру́чка? - Вот .....
2. – Пётр Ива́нович профе́ссор? - Да,  ..... профе́ссор.
3. - Ви́ктор студе́нт? – Нет, .....не студе́нт, .... инжене́р.
4. - Ле́на студе́нтка? - Нет, ......уже́ врач.
5. - Где письмо́? - ......тут.
6. - Маши́на там? - Нет, ...... тут.
7. - Университе́т бли́зко? - Да, .....бли́зко.
8. - Метро бли́зко? - Нет, .......далеко́.
9. - Где авто́бус номер три (N3)? - ......вон там.
10.- Где газе́та? - Вот ......
11.- Где роди́тели? - .....  до́ма.
12.- Где часы́? - ..... вон там.

Note: In casual speech personal pronouns can be omitted in the above answers. Still, do the assignment as required for the sake of practice.

5.3. To which questions are the following answers correct? Offer about 5 possible questions for each answer.

Example:         ........? - Oна́ здесь. →  Где ру́чка? – Она́ здесь.

1........? - Oна́ здесь.  2. ......? - Вот он.  3. .....? - Оно́ там.  4.....? - Да, он бли́зко.
5.......?  - Нет, она́ далеко́.  6....... ? – Вот они́.  7. .... ? - Я не зна́ю, где оно́.

IV. Check if you know the answers to the questions below related to cultural issues:

1. Why the word “bathroom” cannot be considered a full equivalent of ва́нная?
2. When can Russians say “Дава́й наты”?
3. Which meanings of the word “пожа́луйста” do you know?
4. What’s the difference between the Russian word “у́тро” and the English “morning”?
5. Compare and indicate the differences between the following ‘relative equivalents’:
             school – шко́ла;    student – студе́нт, студе́нтка;      class - класс
6. Are academic grades expressed by letters  in Russian schools?

V. You may wish to see if you absorbed some of the vocabulary of Chapter I.  If  you find that you don’t know most of the words, you may choose to work on them now or in the later chapters (using a dictionary).

1. Which terms of kinship (family) do you know? (mother, father, sister, brother, grandmother…)
2. Which words related to a house can you name in Russian? (house, window, apartment, room, door, key...)
3. Name things within a house (room, kitchen, dining-room, study, bathroom, tub...)
4. What pieces of furniture can you name in Russian? (table, chair, armchair, shelf...)
5. What things can you see on the desk? (lamp, book, textbook, photo, newspaper, paper...)
6. What meals of the day do you know? (breakfast, lunch…)
7. What silverware do you use? (spoon, knife…)
8. Which food items should be placed in the refrigerator and which can stay out of it?
9. Name all drinks and beverages that you know (water, juice, milk, coffe, beer, wine…)
10. Point to the parts of the body which you know in Russian and name them (nose, mouth, hand…)
11. What transportation is there in a big city? In your city? (metro/subway, bus, streetcar, car…)
12. Name everything that you can find in a city (city, street, house, university, secondary school, theater, cinema, hotel, restaurant, cafeteria, police, hospital, car, bus, people...)
13. What clothes do you know in Russian? (dress, jacket, trousers, overcoat…)
14. Which words do you know that are related to sports? (stadium, volleyball, socker, tennis…) To music? (music…) To entertainment? (theater, movie theater, stadium…)
15. What professions do you know? (doctor, professor, engineer…)    

  • Интеракти́вные упражне́ния.


  • Упражнение 1. Drag and Drop by Gender

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